The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions,NCERT Solutions,NCERT Solutions Class 6,NCERT Solutions, The living organisms and their surroundings

Chapter 9

The Living Organisms and their surrounding

There are different places cold, hot, desert, etc. all over the world and so many different animals live in these places.

Organism and their surrounding where they live:
Deserts have Camel, Mountains have Yak, mountain goats, etc., and Beaches have crabs and a variety of fishes which are different from rivers and lakes. Ants are mostly present all over the world; Plants are also different in different regions for example cactus in desert and pines in colder area and mangroves in estuaries.

Habitat and Adaptation
In the desert, water is present in a very little amount and days are hot and nights are cold. So the camel is adapted for the harsh condition of the desert and they can live without water for many days because they have adapted for this type of environment their urine output is low and the camel does not sweat.

In the sea, plants and animals are surrounded by saline water, so they respire with the help of air dissolved in water. Fish uses gills to obtain oxygen from water and have a streamlined body for swimming, have scales on the body for easy movement in water.
So these organisms are adapted for this kind of environment and this process is called Adaptation and adaptation is a long term process.

Adaptation and acclimatisation, neck lengthening in giraffe, adaptation is long process
Lengthening of the neck of the Giraffe is an example of adaptation

This can be defined as the short period of change/adaptation when we visit some places like any cold or hot place, get adapted for a short period and when we return back from that place, all gets normal.

It can be defined as the dwelling space (Home) and the organisms get everything from their habitat. Plants and animals can share the same habitat. Plants and animals which live on land are said to live in Terrestrial Habitat: forests, Deserts, Grasslands, Coastal and mountains.
Animals and plants that live in water are said to have Aquatic Habitat such as Oceans, rivers, ponds, lakes, marsh, swamps, etc. 

Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats, desert habitat, pond habitat, ocean habitat, grassland habitat, mountain habitat, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions
Examples of Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats

There are two components in a habitat:
Biotic components
Living components of habitat like plants and animals.

Abiotic Components
Non-living components of Habitat like rocks, soil, air, water, mountains, etc.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors, abiotic factors, biotic factors, climatic factors, edaphic factors, ecosystem, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions
Biotic and Abiotic Factors (recreated by Anil Kashyap)

Types of Habitats


Besides camel there are different organisms also such as desert ratthey live in burrows to keep themselves away from heat. They come out during nights when the temperature is cold.
Desert plants like cactus and Opuntia, aloe Vera loses very little water through transpiration, so they fight against dry conditions. They also don't have leaves and their root is deep in the soil.

Desert and their Plants, xerophytic plants, cactus, opuntia, aloe Vera, desert habitat, terrestrial habitat, NCERT class 6th science, the living organisms and their surroundings
Desert and their Plants

These are normally very cold and windy, in some areas snowfall may occur. In these regions trees are normally cone-shaped and have sloping branches. Leaves are needle-like so snow and rainwater easily slide off. These cold climate trees have lipids in their cells to protect from chilling injuries. 
Animals in this kind of habitat have thick skin due to the deposition of lipids and have fur to protect from cold, yak, sheep, mountain cat, etc are some examples which live in these habitats.

Mountains animals adapted for high altitude, mountain cat, mountain goat, yak, mountain habitat, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions
Mountains Animals Adapted for High Altitude

An area of land that mostly contains grasses, Lions live in grassland, its skin help to hide in dry grass and hunt the prey easily. Eyes of the lion (predator) are in front so help to keep an eye on prey. 
Deer (prey) have strong teeth for chewing hard plant or tree, have longs ears to notice any movement and sound change and their eyes are located on the side so they can detect predator in any direction.

Prey and Predator, grassland habitat, terrestrial habitat, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions
Prey and Predator

Aquatic Habitat
As we know fishes have a streamline body if some organism  don’t have streamline body they live in the seafloor for example- Octopus, Crab, Mollusks, Squid when they have to swim they become streamline.

Aquatic animals,aquatic habitat, ocean habitat, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions,
Aquatic Animals lives on the Ocean Surface

Fishes normally respire by gills if some fishes don’t have gills like Dolphin and whale they come in open air and breathe through nostrils or blowholes.

Blowhole in Whale, blowhole in aquatic animals, The living organisms and their surroundings, NCERT class 6, chapter 9, NCERT class 6th Science Solutions
Blowhole in Whale

Ponds and Lakes
The plants in ponds have air cavity and some have roots in the soil that help in the attachment. Lotus float on water, Hornwort submerged in water and called as an oxygenator. 
Frogs live in a pond or near the pond have, they have strong hind/back legs and due to the presence of strong legs they can easily leap and catch the prey. They also have webbed feet, which help them to swim easily in the water.

Frog, lotus, amphibian, aquatic plant, NCERT class 6, the living organisms and their surroundings
A Frog Sitting on Lotus Leaf

Living things around us:
Animals and plants are living which can respire, grow in size, respond to stimulus, can reproduce, etc.
Living things show growth
Living things can breathe
Living things respond towards a stimulus
Living things can excrete
Living things can reproduce
Living things can move.


1. What is a habitat?
Answer: A habitat can be defined as the dwelling space (home) where the organisms live and can obtain food, shelter, water, air and need things.

2. How are cacti adapted to survive in a desert?
Answer: To prevent the water loss following adaptation occurred in cacti:
  1. Leaves of cacti become a spine to prevent water loss.
  2. The stomata are less in number to prevent the water loss
  3. The roots are deep in the ground to absorb the water from the soil.
  4. The presence of a waxy layer on leaves prevents water loss.

3. Fill up the blanks
(a) The presence of specific features, which enable a plant or an animal to live in a particular habitat, is called Adaptation.
(b) The habitats of the plants and animals that live on land are called a terrestrial habitat.
(c) The habitats of plants and animals that live in water are called an aquatic habitat.
(d) Soil, water and air are the Biotic factors of a habitat.
(e) Changes in our surroundings that make us respond to them are called Stimuli.

4. Which of the things in the following list are nonliving?
Plough, Mushroom, Sewing machine, Radio, Boat, Water hyacinth, Earthworm
Answer: Plough, Sewing machine, radio, boat.

5. Give an example of a non-living thing, which shows any two characteristics of living things.
Answer: Car
  1. Oxygen is required to burn the fuel in the engine of a car
  2. It moves

6. Which of the non-living things listed below, were once part of a living thing?
Butter, Leather, Soil, Wool, Electric bulb, Cooking oil, Salt, Apple, Rubber
Answer: Butter, leather, Apple, Rubber, cooking oil were part of living things.

7. List the common characteristics of the living things.
Answer: Growth, breathe, response towards stimuli, reproduction, move.

8. Explain, why speed is important for survival in the grasslands for animals that live there. (Hint: There are few trees or places for animals to hide in grasslands habitats.)
Answer: If a lion (predator) is running after the deer then the deer has to run fast to save his life, that’s why the speed matters in the grassland.

Keywords: Adaptation, Aquatic habitat, biotic component, Excretion, Growth, Habitat, Living, Reproduction, Respiration, Stimulus, NCERT solution.

Pic Source: Pixabay, recreation work done by Anil Kashyap

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