Crop Production and Management, Chapter:1, NCERT Class 8th science, free NCERT Notes,, CTET Paper 2, CTET TGT, Free notes of crop production and management

NCERT Class 8th science, Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management

We all know that food is important for all living organisms. So why we the need for food?

We need food for energy to do work. Plants can make their own food with the help of photosynthesis and some animals and humans eat vegetables and some kill other animals to obtain energy. In ancient times humans also used to kill animals and obtain energy.

Agricultural Practices

Human used to be nomadic (खानाबदोश, घुमंतू) till 10000 B.C. and they used to wander here and there in search of food and shelter. Humans started eating wild animals, wild plants and vegetables and fruits.
Slowly-slowly they learned to cultivate wheat, rice, etc. and that how Agriculture started.
India is a big country and temperature, humidity, rain, etc., play an important role in agriculture.

Kharif Crops, Rabi Crops and Zaid Crop, NCERT Class 8th Science,
Kharif Crops, Rabi Crops and Zaid Crop

Basic Practice of Crop Production
There are 7 basic practices involves in crop production are mentioned below:
  1. Preparation of Soil
  2. Sowing
  3. Adding manure and fertilisers
  4. Irrigation
  5. Protecting from weeds
  6. Harvesting
  7. Storage

1. Preparation of Soil
The most important task is to prepare the soil by loosening it. So roots can penetrate easily deep inside the soil and new sapling sprouts from the soil.
Loose soil allows the growth of microbes and earthworms, which are also called as “friend of farmers” due to the fact that they convert the garbage and organic waste in compost and help to loosen the soil.
Loosening the soil mix up the nutrient so the plant can grow easily and nourished.

The process of loosening and turning the soil is called Tilling or Ploughing. Sometimes manure is added before tilling.
If soil is hard so water can be added in farm and the ploughed field may have a big piece of soil called a Crumbs.

Ploughing tools, crop production and management
Ploughing tools

Levelling of crumbs, crop production and management
Levelling of Soil

2. Sowing

Good quality seeds are selected, they are clean and healthy and farmers use seed which giver high yield. The selection of seeds depends upon the area, weather, rain, etc.
NSC (National Seeds Corporation) which comes under the ministry of agriculture tests the quality of seeds and there are state universities and labs for checking the quality of seeds.
How to separate damages seeds from healthy?
We can take the example of soaking of grams the bad quality gram float on the surface and healthy gram sink to the bottom.

Checking of Healthy Seed, crop production and management
Checking of Healthy Seed
Transferring of some crop to field,
Transferring of some crop to field
Sowing Tools,
Sowing Tools

3. Adding Manure and Fertilisers


Organic substances obtained from plants and animals decompositions of waste, farmers dump waste in an open place and let it decomposed by microorganisms
These are the substances that are added as nutrients in the field. Because continuous crop growing in the field results in the decrease nutrients in the soil. So external nutrients are added in the soil and process is known as Manuring.
Manure is good as it provides textures to soil and increases water retention capacity of the soil.


These are chemical substances, which are rich in a particular type of nutrients and these are manufactured in factories for example urea, ammonium sulphate, superphosphate, potash, NPK (Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium).
Too much use of fertilisers is harmful and increase water pollution and soil lost its fertility.
Another method of soil replenishing is crop rotation, which means that crops are sown alternatively. In northern India farmers grow lentils in one season and wheat in other seasons. This helps in nitrogen replenishment. Rhizobium is characteristic of legumes plants which make the soil rich in nitrogen.

Difference between Manure and Fertilisers,, crop production and management
Difference between Manure and Fertilisers

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4. Irrigation

All livings beings need water and important for proper growth and development of flowers.
Water absorbed by the plant's roots with minerals and fertilisers. Plants have 90% of the water in them.
Seed germination takes place when soil is moist and should be irrigated regularly to protect from  hot air and frost.
Irrigation should be in proper intervals and depends on the soil, plants variety and seasonal conditions.
Source of Irrigation
There are so many methods like canals, rivers, ponds, tube well, dams, etc.

Chain Pump and Moat, crop production and management,
Methos of Irrigation (Chain Pump and Moat)
Dhekli and Rahat, methods of irrigation,
Methos of Irrigation (Dhekli and Rahat)
Modern Irrigation Methods (Sprinklers and Drip Method),
Modern Irrigation Methods (Sprinklers and Drip Method)

5. Protection from weeds
As we have already studied in previous classes that weeds are unwanted plants that’s need to be removed from farm and process called weeding. We have to remove it because they use the nutrition from the soil and decrease the yield. Weeds can be removed manually like uprooting or cutting from time to time. It Can be done by Khurpi (Spud).

Spud (Khurpi), crop production and management,
Spud (Khurpi)

We can use chemicals known as weedicides example of weedicide is:
2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) diluted ad sprayed on crops and these should be sprayed before flowering And fruits formation otherwise could be problematic for us. The face should be covered while spraying the weedicides because inhalation of these chemicals can be harmful.

Structure of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Structure of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

6. Harvesting

We know this step as cutting of crops; we can pull the crop out or cut close to the ground. From preparation of soil to harvesting is taking approx. 3 to 4 months. Harvesting Festivals: Pongal, Bhaishaki,  Holi, Diwali, Nabanya (Bengali festival) and Bihu. Harvesting can be done by sickle or harvester.

Harvesting Methods
Harvesting Methods

7. Storage
It is the most important step, crops should be stored away from light, moisture, insects, etc.
Seeds are dried properly before storing it will protect from moisture and attacks of insects.
Seeds can be stored in jute bags and metallic containers.
Large scale storing requires silos and granaries
Neem leaves are used to prevent the harvested crops from insects but at large scale chemicals are used.

Animal husbandry

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NCERT 8th Class Science Book

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