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MCQs plus Revision of Creating an Inclusive School

I have covered MCQs from the b.ed's subject "creating an inclusive school" and this blog has simple notes to get the ideas of the topic and easy way to revise the topics if you want to see the whole video and concepts please visit my youtube channel "educationphile". The MCQs of creating an inclusive school will be very helpful for the objective types of examination for the students.

Unit 1 

The school where all the students can study under one roof without any discrimination? 
A.Inclusive Education/School (समावेशी शिक्षा / स्कूल) 
B.Exclusive School 
C.Specialised Schools 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

Who said, “An exceptional child is he who deviates from the normal child in physical, mental and social characteristics to such an extent that he requires a modification of school practices or special educational services in order to develop his maximum capacity”? 
A.W. L. Heward 
B.Crow and Crow 
C.S. A. Kirk 
D.None of the above 

Answer: C 

S. A. Kirk said, “An exceptional child is he who deviates from the normal child in physical, mental and social characteristics to such an extent that he requires modifications of school practices or special educational services in order to develop his maximum capacity” 

W. L. Heward, “The term exceptional children includes children who experience difficulties in learning of behavioural, emotional or social problems. Children with abilities or sensory impairments and education are necessary to help them to fulfil their potential”. 

Crow and Crow, “the term exceptional is applied to traits or to a person possessing the traits, because of it, the individual receives special attention from his fellows.” 

We all are exceptions in our own way but sometimes the differences are much and require special attention and those individual are called as an exceptional individual. 

Exceptional children include children who have difficulties in learning and also those who are very superior and require modifications in instruction and curriculum to fulfil their needs. 

Exceptional children categories on the basis of characteristic:
1. Hearing impairment 
2. Visual impairment 
3. Physical or orthopaedic impairment 
4. Giftedness 
5. Creative talents 
6. Multiple disabilities 
7. Autism 
8. Mental retardation 
9. Learning disabilities 
10. Emotional and behavioural Disorders 
11. Communication disorders 
12. Neurological disorders 

The individual who has unique traits and characteristics influenced by genetically or environmentally is called? 
A.Special Child individuals 
B.Gifted individuals 
C.Exceptional Individual 
D.All of the above 

Answer: C 

Classifications of Exceptional Individual 
1. Intellectual Deviance 
a) Mental Retardation 
b) Giftedness and creativity 

2. Sensory Deviance 
a) Visual Impairment 
b) Hearing impairment 

3. Motor Deviance 
a) Speech Impairment 
b) Orthopaedic impairment 

4. Personality Deviance 
a) Learning Disabilities 
b) Emotional Disorder 

5. Educational Deviance 
a) Educationally Bright 
b) Educationally Backward 
c) Communication Disorder 

6. Social Deviance 
a) Maladjusted Children 
b) Deprived Children 
c) Juvenile Children 

7. Traumatic Brain Injury 
8. Multiple Deviance 

If the individual has vision less than ______ after maximum correction are called as visually impaired? 

Answer: A 

If an individual is having visual acuity (दृश्य तीक्ष्णता) less than 6/60 after correction by glasses may be called as a visually impaired person. 

We can divide visually impaired in ___ categories? 

Answer: C 

We can classify a visual impaired person into 4 categories 
1. Profoundly Impaired 
Having zero acuity in both eyes 

2. Severely impaired 
They are partially blind individuals and have visual acuity is less than 6/60 after maximum correction. 

3. Moderately impaired 
They have visual acuity in range of 6/24-6/60. they can do everything if proper help is given. 

4. Mildly impaired 
This is general in nature people having 6/12 or 6/24 and can be corrected with glasses. 

Blindness occurs due to accidental causes comes under? 
A.Hereditary causes (वंशानुगत कारण) 
B.Environmental causes 
D.All of the above 

Answer: B 

Mildly hearing-impaired individuals can not hear sound below ______ dB? 
A.26-54 dB 
B.55-69 dB
C.70-89 dB 
D.All of the above 

Answer: A 

Severely hearing-impaired individuals can not hear sound below ______ dB? 
A.26-54 dB 
B.55-69 dB
C.70-89 dB 
D.All of the above 

Answer: C 

Hearing impairment refers to a complete or partial loss of hearing ability. 

Hearing impairment is basically of two types:
1. Deaf (बधिर) 
2. Hard of Hearing (सुनने में दिक्कत) 

Degree of hearing Impairment 
Mildly Hearing impaired (26-54 dB)
Need hearing aids and can study in regular schools. 

Moderately Hearing Impaired (55-69 dB) 
They need some time in regular school and some in special schools. They require special training and hearing aids 

Severely hearing impaired (70-89 dB)
They can not be helped in regular school and require special schools, require lip-reading and sign language. so a deaf person is who is unable to hear from a distance with or without the hearing aids. 

The individual who are not hearing impaired by birth but loss the sense of hearing before the development of language and speech comes under? 
A.Bybirth deafness 
B.Prelingual deafness 
C.Postlingual deafness 
D.None of the above 

Answer: B 

How we can identify hearing impaired children? 
A.Development Scale 
B.Neuro-psychological tests 
C.Case Study 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Identification of hearing-impaired children 
1. Development Scale 
2. Neuro-psychological tests 
3. Case Study 
4. Medical examination 
5. Systematic Observations 

It is a state of arrested or incomplete development of mind so severe that the patient is incapable of leading an independent life? 
C.American Association of Mental Retardation 

Answer: A 

As per Merriam-Webster 
Mild to severe impairment in intellectual ability equivalent to an IQ of 70 to 75 or below that is accompanied by significant limitations in social, practical and conceptual skills (as in interpersonal communication, reasoning, or self-care) necessary for independent daily functioning and that has an onset before age 18 : 

NOTE: The term intellectual disability is now preferred over mental retardation especially in medical, educational, and regulatory contexts. Mental retardation is still widely used in speech and writing, though it may sometimes be considered offensive (अपमानजनक). (Source: Merriam Webster)

American Association on Mental Retardation 
They have a problem in following adaptive skills and functioning: 
  • Communication
  • Self-care
  • Home living
  • Social skills
  • Community use
  • Self-direction
  • Healthy and safety
  • Functions academics
  • Leisure and work

What is the IQ of Mental retarded individuals? 
A.Below 70 
B.Below 90 
C.Below 100 
D.None of these 

Answer: B 

Mentally retardation related to intellectual functioning and an individual have below-average intelligence and affects their functioning. 

They have a problem in communication, taking care of themselves, everyday activity, social skills are not good, etc. 

There are four types of mental retardation
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What are the causes of mental retardation? 
A.Post natal 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Causes of mental retardation 

During birth 

After Birth, infections, home and family background 

Environmental causes like diseases, brain trauma, nutrition, toxic agents, etc. 


The causes of locomotory or orthopaedic impairment are? 
A.Congenital causes 
B.Acquired causes 
C.Hereditary causes 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Causes of locomotory or orthopaedic impairment 
A. Congenital causes 
B. Acquired causes 
C. Hereditary causes 
D. Miscellaneous causes (विविध कारण) 
a) Poliomyelitis 
b) Cerebral Palsy 
i. Spastic Cerebral Palsy (develops in very starting age and before birth also characterise by jerky, muscles tightness and joint stiffness) 
ii. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy (A movement disorder) 
iii. Ataxia Cerebral Palsy (Balancing disorder) 

Definitions of orthopaedic or locomotory impairment 
Disability India Network, “orthopedically handicapped are those who suffer from the defect that is accompanied by one or another type of deformity that inhibits the normal exercise of his/her muscles, joints or bones” 

Rehabilitation Council Of India defined orthopaedic or locomotory impairment, “a person's inability to execute distinctive activities associated with moving both himself and objects, from place to place and such inability resulting from affliction of musculoskeletal and/or nervous system.” 

Presence of more than two disabilities is referred by ____ term? 
A.Multiple disabilities 
C.Mono disabilities 

Answer: A 

“Inclusive education is seen as a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities and reducing exclusion from education and from within education” term given by? 
B.Dakar World Education Forum 

Answer: A 
Definitions of Inclusive School
“Inclusive education is seen as a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities and reducing exclusion from education and from within education” term given by UNESCO

Moran, “Inclusive Education is about embracing education values of equity, diversity and social justice.” 

Task Force, “inclusive education is a process of responding to the uniqueness of individuals, increasing their present access, participation and achievement in a learning society” 

Salamanca Statement, “schools should accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantaged or marginalised areas or groups” 

What should not be a characteristic of an inclusive School? 
A.School Climate 
B.Welcoming attitude 
C.Parents involvement 
D.Non cooperative behaviour 

Answer: D 

Characteristics of Inclusive Classroom
1. School Climate 
2. Welcoming attitude 
3. Parents involvement 
4. Curriculum and Instruction 
5. Role of Teachers 
6. Classroom Practises 
7. Supportive Aids and Materials 

Issues and Challenges of Creating an Inclusive School:
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What are the general principles of Inclusive Education? 
A.Principle of teaching 
B.Principle of exploring multiple identities 
C.Principle of choosing appropriate materials 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

General Principles Of Inclusive Education 
1. Principle of teaching 
2. Principle of exploring multiple identities 
3. Principle of choosing appropriate materials 
4. Principle of exploring multiple identities 
5. Principle of teaching and learning about cultures and religions 
6. Principle of promoting social justice 
7. Principle of preventing prejudices (पूर्वाग्रहों को रोकना) 

Unit 2 

When was the PWD Act, 1995 came into force? 
A.March 20, 1995 
B.April 20, 1997 
C.December 12, 1995 
D.February 7, 1996 

Answer: D 

What is the full form of the PWD Act, 1995? 
A.Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation 
B.Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 
C.National Policy of Disabled 
D.Rehabilitation Council of India Act 

Answer: A 

In Lok Sabha, it approved on December 12, 1995, and enforced on February 7 1996. 
An important landmark for ensuring rights for PWDs and their full participation in the growth of the country. 

It provided aspects for: 
  • Education 
  • Employment, vocational training, job reservation 
  • Rehabilitation of person with a disability 
  • Unemployment allowance 
  • Insurance schemes, home for severe disability, etc. 
  • Persons with at least 40% of a disability are allowed for benefits in reservations in education and employment, preference in government schemes, etc. 

When RCI (Rehabilitation Council Of India) set as a registered society? 

Answer: A 

When RCI (Rehabilitation Council Of India)became a statutory body? 
A.22 September 1993 
B.22 June 1993 
C.4 May 1993 
D.20 August 1993 

Answer: B 

What is the duty of RCI? 
A.Regulate the law against violation of RPWD act 
B.Regulate the Infrastructure of the Differently abled persons in-country 
C.Regulate and monitor facilities are given to PwDs and to standardise syllabi 
D.None of the above 

Answer: C 

RCI or Rehabilitation Council of India 
It is a government body. Which works for the disadvantaged and differently-abled and special education requirements communities. 

  • RCI was set as a registered society in 1986. 
  • In 1992, enacted (bill or proposal) as RCI act by parliament and became a statutory body (सांविधिक निकाय) on 22 June 1993. 
  • In 2000, an act was amended and its work was broadened. 

When National Policy for Person with Disabilities? 
A.10 August 2006 
B.25 February 2006 
C.10 June 2006 
D.10 February 2006 

Answer: D 

National Policy for Person with Disabilities 
  • This policy was formed on 10 February 2006, comes under Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. It came into force to ensure the interest and rights of a disabled person. 
  • The motive of this policy was to ensure and enhance the inclusive education and equal rights for everyone as said in our constitution. The violators should be punished if needed. 
  • The National Policy 2006, treat the person with disabilities as an equally important person and needed for the development of the country in every aspect and we to create an environment which helps them to participate in society equally. 
  • Previous efforts like PwD Act 1995, which provides “Equal Opportunities, protection of right and full participation” then “1992 RCI (Rehabilitation Council of India Act) came to ensure the rehabilitation of PWDs” then “National Trust for Welfare of person with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities Act, 1999” 

Objectives of the National Policy For Person With Disabilities Act, 2006
1. Barrier-free Environment 
2. Women with disabilities 
3. Issue of Disability Certificates 
4. Promotion of NGO 
5. Collection of record of PWDs 
6. Social security 
7. Research 
8. Cultural involvement of children with SEN 
9. Amendments to the existing acts dealing with the children with disabilities 
10. Children with disabilities 
11. Prevention of Disabilities 

Which period of the years was declared as the year for the person with disabilities? 

Answer: B 

What is the full form of UN CRPD? 
A.Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 
B.Convention on the Rights of Persons with Differently Ability 
C.Common Rights of Persons with Disabilities 
D.None of the Above 
Answer: A 

When was UNCRPD adopted by UN Assembly? 
A.12 March 2007 
B.20 April 2009 
C.13 December 2006 
D.25 June 2005 

Answer: C 

When was it opened for signatories UN Assembly? 
A.30 April, 2007 
B.31 August, 2006 
C.20 May, 2006 
D.30 March, 2007 

Answer: D 

Foundation UNCRPD
  • This is adopted by UN General Assembly on 13 December 2006. 
  • Opened for signatories on 30 March 2007. 
  • In the history of UN convention to receive the highest number of signatories on its opening day. 
  • The condition was that it should be signed and ratified by at least 20 countries (ratification: to pass the bill in their parliament and should be accepted then it is said to be ratified), in India it was ratified on 1 October 2007. 
  • After signatories and ratification by 20 countries, it came into force on 3 May 2008. 
  • As of November 2019, the total signatories are 163 and 181 parties which include 180 states and the European Union. 

How many sets of Articles UNCRPD have? 

Answer: B 

When the Salamanca Statement was announced? 
A.June (7 to 10) 1994 
B.August 1994 
C.September 1994 
D.October 1994 

Answer: A 

DDRC stands for? 
A.District Differntlyabled Rehabilitation Centres 
B.District Disability Rehabilitation Centres 
C.Department of Disability Rehabilitation Centres 
D.District Disability Rehabilitation council 

Answer: B 

Who is the chairman of District Management Team (DMT) in DDRC of? 
A.Deputy Magistrate 
C.MLA of the district 
D.District Collector 

Answer: D 

The DDRC (District Disability Rehabilitation Centres)
  • This schemes come under Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and implemented since 2000 to implement aims of PWD Act 1995. 
  • The motto of this work at grass root level at the district level and in villages for facilities, infrastructures, awareness generation, rehabilitation of PWDs and works. 

Role of rehabilitation professionals: 
  • To provide services like detection of PWDs, early detection and prevention, follow-ups, repair of assistive devices, therapeutic services for example physiotherapy, speech therapy, facilitation of disability certificate, bus passes, other facilities, etc. 
  • For best results, they have to work with rural development and revenue and department of health education. 

Who is the full form of IEDC? 
A.Integrated Education for Disabled Children 
B.Inclusiveness of Education for Disabled Children 
C.Integrated Education for Differntlyabled Children 
D.Inclusive Education for Disabled Children 

Answer: A 

As per the RPWD act, what is minimum disability criteria to avail any governmental schemes? 

Answer: C 

As per the RTE Act, what is the age for compulsory education for differently-abled children? 
A.6-14 Years 
B.6-20 Years 
C.6-18 Years 
D.6-16 Years 

Answer: C 

How many Health conditions are covered in RPWD act 2016? 

Answer: 21 

Health conditions covered under RPWD Act 2016
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Health conditions covered under RPWD Act 2016

What is the full form of RPwD Act 2016? 
A.Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 
B.Rights of Persons with Differently abled Act, 2016 
C.Rights of People with Differently abled Act, 2016 
D.None of the Above 

Answer: A 

  • This is an act to preserve the rights of persons with disabilities. 
  • It replaced the PwD act 1995 (Equal Opportunity Protection of Rights and Full Participation act) because it wasn’t enough to support the UNCRPD. 
  • It was passed in parliament for the obligation of UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the rights of people with disabilities), India ratified it on 7 October 2007. 
  • A draft bill was introduced in year 2011. 
  • It was introduced in parliament on 7 February 2014 and Rajyasabha passed this bill on 14 December 2016. 
  • Finally, Lok Sabha passed this bill on 16 December 2016 and after getting approval by the president of Indian it became law and government notify this bill on 30 December 2016. 
  • It came into force on 15 June 2017 and under Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 
  • According to act person who intentionally insults or intimidates with intent to humiliate a PwD on any place within public view is punishable with imprisonment. 
  • Reservation in Jobs increased from 3% to 4%. 
  • Persons with at least 40% of a disability are allowed for benefits in reservations in education and employment, preference in government schemes, etc. 
  • As per RTE also they can avail free education from age 6 to 18. 
  • The state government have to set district level committees to deal with injustice at the local level. 
  • National and state-level funds should be there to help PwD. 
  • All buildings whether private or public should be PwD friendly. 
  • Social courts should be in every district and have to make sure no injustice and violation of this act. 

What is the full form of CRCs? 
A.Central Regional Council for the person with disabilities 
B.Centralised Regional Centres for the person with disabilities 
C.Composite Regional Centres for the person with disabilities 
D.None of the Above 

Answer: C 

SEN stands for? 
A.Special Educator needed 
B.Special Educational Needs 
C.Special Education Norms 
D.Special Education nation 

Answer: B 

W. M. Cruichshank, “An SEN learner who deviates physically, intellectually and socially so marked by the normal growth and development that he cannot be benefited from regular classroom programme and needs special treatment in school.” 

Kirk, “An SEN learner is he who deviates from normal average children in mental, physical and social characteristics to such an extent that he requires a modification of school practices or special educational services or supplementary instruction in order to develop to his maximum capacity” 

SEN learners can be divided into following categories 

  1. Visually impaired Children 
  2. Hearing Impaired Children 
  3. Speech Impaired Children 
  4. Orthopaedic Impaired Children 
  5. Intellectually Impaired Children 
  6. Learning Impaired Children 
  7. Multiple Disabled Children 

Diverse Needs of SEN Learners 

  • Physical and Psychological Needs 
  • Educational Needs 
  • Social Needs 
  • Emotional Needs 
  • Vocational Needs 

What should be educational implications for blind or totally visually impaired individuals? 
A.Administrative Arrangements 
B.Teaching aids and materials 
C.Teaching through auditory Materials 
D.All of these 

Answer: D 

Education of Blind/totally visually impaired children:

1. Teaching materials required: 
The tape recorder, brailler, embossed and relief map, graphs, guide dogs, typewriter, software. 

2. Administrative arrangement: 
Fully covered electrical appliances, special playground, plain lawn and floors, teachers experts in braille reading and writing, teaching aids. 

3. Developing reading and writing skills: 
Braille is best for reading and writing, braille was developed by Louis Braille of France in 1824. 
In 1902, the British modified the braille and that become standard Braille for teaching writing and reading. In 1950, UNESCO adapted and developed Braille for all languages. 

4. Teaching of arithmetic: 
At the primary stage, mental mathematics is used or mathematics done orally. From junior level use of calculated slides, ruler, protractor, etc. can be used and books are available for different topics. Through. clay modelling geometric patterns are being taught. 
5. Teaching through auditory materials: 
Tape recorders can be used, CD players can be used, headphones, recording done at speed of 150 words per minute so that blind individual can easily understand because everything can not be provided on braille due to heavy books. 

6. Mobility Training: 
They are teach to recognise the objects, locate the places and then they can go in outer environment. They are trained to use guide dogs. They are also psychologically motivate to go outside 

7. Vocational Training: 
This is important to teach them to earn and carry out in their life easily. They are taught in many vocational skills like: weaving carpets, music training, teaching to others, type writing, stenography through braille. 

8. Residential Schools: 
This is best for them to learn basics and then go outside and for that residential schools are best for them. The environment is homogenous and they feel motivated in these schools and maximum care is taken for them. 

OCR stands for? 
A.Optical Character Recognition 
B.Optical Class Recognition 
C.Optical Character Recogniser 
D.Occulomotor Character Recognition 

Answer: A 

What should be education implication for Partially Blinds? 
A.Training of sight saving techniques 
B.Teaching aids and materials 
C.Use of optical character recognition 
D.All of Above 

Answer: D 

Education for Partially Blinds 

They face less problems in training and education then totally blind children. 
1. Training of sight saving techniques: 
They are encouraged to use their other senses despites of vision, they cannot read less than 12 point font in books, books usually written in 10 points font and they study by bringing them closer and it will increase the strain and damage the vision more, there vision is 6/60, which is 10% and can’t be reliable in these situations that’s why they are encouraged o use other sense of hearing and touching. 

2. Teaching Materials 

3. Administrative Arrangement and Teaching methods 

4. Use of optical character recognition (OCR): 
This device converts printed words into speech the device can be used for example: KurzWeil personal reader. 

5. Inclusive School for them: 
They can get education in normal inclusive school with some special instructions in curriculum and aids. They subjects like biology, physics and chemistry at a higher level is not for them as they require practical but they are motivated to study literature, humanities, social studies, psychology, philosophy, etc. 

6. Curriculum Modifications 
Speechreading mostly used for SEN learners having problems in their sense of ______ ? 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

Education Provision for Hearing Impaired Children 

1. Use of Hearing Aids 
Hearing aids are very helpful and effective for these children. Headphones and speakers can be used, and individual aids can also be given to hearing impaired children. 

2. Nursery Education 
Education in starting phase is beneficial to increase confidence in children with hearing impairment. 

3. Speech Reading 
In this, training of lip reading, understanding of expressions and facial movements is taught to students to recognise the speech. It requires lots of practice and training. Hearing impaired children learns with the help of gestures and facial expressions and lip reading. 

4. Vocational Training 
Vocational training is given to these children and those jobs are recognised which can be performed by them like teaching, paintings, arts, mechanical and technical course, etc. 

5. Teaching Strategy and Methods 
Teaching method involves role playing, illustration, learning by pictures and videos, use of flash cards, hanging charts, etc. are very helpful in teaching to these children, Speech therapy is helpful to remove any speaking problems, hearing aids can be used and Sign language and finger spellings techniques are very helpful. 

6. Part Time Special Class Placement 
Those children who are affected from mild to moderately hearing impairment can attend half day in regular school and half in special school. The regular should have resources room and a teacher who can help them to cop problem faces in regular school. 

7. Placement in integrated school 
Only mild hearing impaired children are able to study in regular school but should have basic training and there should be special school for deaf children. 

8. Role of Teachers 

Orthopedically Handicapped Children 

These are the children those are cripples (not able to walk) due to some injury, accident or polio affected. Crippled can be divided into two categories: 

Educational Needs of Orthopedically Impaired Children 
  • There should be a lapboard to fixe the books, pen holders, thick pen, etc. 
  • They require assistive aids like wheelchair, braces, hand rails throughout the buildings, etc. 
  • Furniture should be adjustable and comfortable. 
  • Doors should be wide and ramp should be there. 
  • They need extra time to complete the work. 
  • One to one instruction can be used for them. 
  • Washrooms should be adjustable for them. 
  • Rubber mats should be on slippery places. 
  • They should be encouraged to participate equally in school activities. 

Role of Teacher 
  • Encourage to overcome to their problem. 
  • Should have positive attitude towards these children. 
  • The teacher should make sure the children are comfortable in classroom. 
  • The teacher should encourage us to participate in activities like paintings, arts, speech competitions, etc. 
  • Should organise a cooperative learning environment. 
  • They should given extra time to complete the work. 
  • The teacher should motivate other children for a better inclusive classroom practices. 

What is the IQ of Mental retarded individuals? 
A.Below 70 
B.Below 90 
C.Below 100 
D.None of these 

Answer: B 

What is the IQ of Morones or Feeble Minded individuals? 
A.Below 70 
B.Below 90 
C.Below 50 
D.None of these 

Answer: A 

What is the IQ of Idiots or Profound individuals? 
A.Below 70 
B.Below 90 
C.Below 100 
D.Below 25 

Answer: D 

Mentally retardation related to intellectual functioning and an individual have below average intelligence and affects their functioning. They have problem in communication, taking care of themselves, everyday activity, social skills are not good, etc. 

There are four types of mental retardation: 

Educational Implications for Border line or Dullers IQ (70 to 90): 
1. Curriculum: 
No need of different curriculum they can study every subject but at slower speed and take more time to understand. Academic achievement also less than average students. They are good in activity subject despite of academics. 

2. Improving Functional Academic Skills: 
  • They learn just normally but with more time so reinforcement is used to get desired behaviour. 
  • They should do more practise in reading also. 
  • For maths, they should do more drilling exercises. 
  • Complex things can be teach in parts. 
  • Teaching with examples can be used. 
  • A short test is regular intervals can be used. 

3. Improving School adaptive behaviour: 
Self direction, social skills, self care, health and safety are the important school adaptive behaviours. 
Social skills can be taught through good examples and desired behaviour rewarded regularly 
They should give opportunities to select the friends there interest so they can be engaged with them in regular activities to make them involved. 
Video can be shown to them so that they can learn how to take care of their health. 

Educational Implications for Morones or Freeble Minded (IQ 50 to 70): 
There is a need for special school and because they are diverted in mental growth as comparison to normal children so special education is needed for them. After learning in special school they can be integrated in regular school with administration and teachers support 

2. Skill based Training 
In sensory and motor abilities they are similar to normal children. So the curriculum is based o motor and sensory activities. So mechanical and vocational education is best for them. 

3. Physical Training 
Physically they are similar to normal children so physical training can be started in early age. 

4. Social and adjustments training 
Behavioural therapy can be used to treat them social and behaviour skills. Psychological guidance can be also provided to them. 

5. Aims of education 
Social development, vocational skills so they can do jobs, academic achievement to the ability level 

Educational Implications for Imbecile (IQ 25 to 50) 
They are severely mentally retarded, can not manage themselves, cannot be trained in complex life skills. They can do some simple jobs but can not do work by their own. They require support through their life. 

1. Aims and objectives 
They need support throughout their life so education try to make them self supportive up to some extent, promote socialisation and to teach elementary oral language. 

2. Adapted Curriculum 
Safety teaching and education and first aid. 
Concept of money, time, materials, etc. can be teached. 
Physical activity through games. 
Skills of listening, observing, speaking and writing. 

3. Training of Functional Skills 
Through teaching of these skills children are make to interact with their peers and socially interact enjoy independently. 

4. Placement of Imbeciles 
They should be placed in age appropriate schools. 
They can be admitted in special schools. 
They can be teached social skills, mobility, community living and self care ate schools. 

4. Idiots (IQ < 25) 
  • They are mentally retarded children and they can not be admitted in regular as well as special schools. They cant be trained and teached. 
  • They are totally custodial and dependent cases. 
  • They normally do not respond to questions and speak very few words with problem. 

Who given this term, “Cerebral Palsy term is related to describe a group of chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle co-ordination, which is caused by damage in one or more areas in brain. The damage could be occur at foetus or infancy level and it is life long problem”? 
A.Walter Zalcman 
C.American Association for Mental Retardation 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

What is the full form of AAC? 
A.Artificial and Alternative Communication 
B.Assistive and Alternative Communication 
C.Assistive and additional Communication 
D.Augmentative and Alternative Communication 

Answer: D 

Cerebral is related to two hemispheres of brain and palsy is problem which affects the muscles or body movement. These problem arise due to faulty development of motor neurons in brain and disrupts the ability to control the body movement and posture. 

According to Walter Zalcman (2004)
Cerebral Palsy term is related to describe a group of chronic conditions affecting body movement and muscle co-ordination, which is caused by damage in one or more areas in brain. The damage could be occur at foetus or infancy level and it is life long problem. 

So we can say that “Cerebral Palsy” is a neuromuscular disorder which results due to damage in brain before or after birth. 

Causes of Cerebral Palsy 
  • Genetic Problem 
  • Infection during pregnancy 
  • Trauma at the time of birth 
  • Maternal infection during pregnancy period 
  • Exposure to radiation 
  • Brain infection 
  • Viral disease 
  • Use of drugs or alcohol 
  • Tumour or cancer or any kind of lesion in brain 

Problems Due to Cerebral Palsy 
  • Difficulty in Physical Movement 
  • Sitting Problems 
  • Speech Difficulties 
  • Inability to Control Movement 
  • Intellectual Impairment 
  • Lack of coordination 
  • Tremors or involuntary movements 
  • Difficulty with sucking, swallowing or eating 
  • Seizures 
  • Difficulty in focusing (Eye problem) 

Educational Provisions for Cerebral Palsy 

1. Administrative Support 
Transport service should be friendly, There classes should be on ground floor, Furniture should be adjustable and comfortable, Infrastructure such as doors, toilets, ramps, railings, drinking water should be there. 

2. Adaptation in Curriculum and Pedagogical Support 
  • Stress on writing work should be less for children because due to poor muscle control they are not able to write easily. 
  • They could be slow in doing normal work so extra time should be given to them and in exam scribe should be provided to them. 
  • Use of computer and typewriter should be encouraged from junior level. 
  • One-to-one instruction could be used. 
  • Cooperative learning should be encouraged. 
  • Learning through field trips which help in the development of concepts

3. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) 
  • This is a multidisciplinary approach which involves teachers, parents, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and psychologists. Cerebral palsy is untreatable disorder. 
  • So early detection and prevention are helpful to decrease the effect of this disorder and supportive treatment can be given from very early age to make the children self reliable up to some extent. 
  • Therapies can be used to improve posture and psychological status. Speech therapy can be used to treat if children have speech related problems. 
  • These programs can be improved over time, depending on the need and situation of the children. 

The interactive process or set of relationships in which the child, their family and the school interact in many ways to support the overall development of the child including physical, mental, psychological, emotional aspects” is called as? 
A.Inclusive School 
B.School Readiness 
C.Exclusive School 
D.None of the above 

Answer: B 

What are the factors affecting school readiness? 
A.Family Background 
B.Classroom Environment 
C.Socio-Economic Status of Family 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Factors Affecting School Readiness 
1.Family Background 
2.Classroom Environment 
3.Socio-Economic Status of Family 
4.Types of services provided in school 
5.Child’s Health 

What are the Characteristics of an Inclusive Classroom? 
A.Curriculum and Instruction 
B.Role of Teachers 
C.Classroom Practises 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Characteristics of Inclusive Classroom 

1. School Climate 
2. Welcoming attitude 
3. Parents involvement 
4. Curriculum and Instruction 
5. Role of Teachers 
6. Classroom Practises 
7. Supportive Aids and Materials 

Definitions of Inclusive School 
The Equal Authority 2005, “one which respects, values and accommodates diversity across all nine grounds in the equality legislation gender, marital status, family status, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, race and membership of the community. It seeks positive experiences as sense of belonging and outcomes for all pupils across the nine grounds”. 

Department of Education Victoria State, “Inclusive school is one that which recognise and respond to the diverse needs of the students, accommodating both different styles and rates of learning and ensuring quality education not all through appropriate curricula, organisational arrangements, teaching strategies, resources use and partnership with the community” 

Issues and Challenges 

  1. Parents Attitude
  2. Acceptance from Regular Schools
  3. Transport
  4. Infrastructure
  5. Attention From Teachers

The school where, “all the school personnel, including teachers, principal, students, guidance teacher/officers, non-teaching staff and parents are willing to accept students with special needs. So that a harmonious, caring and supportive environment will be created”? 
A.Whole School Approach 
B.Exclusive Approach 
C.Regular School Approach 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

What are the dimensions of School”? 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Dimensions of Whole School Approach 
  1. Policies
  2. Practise
  3. Culture

Characteristic of the Whole School Approach 
  1. Whole School Consensus 
  2. Peer support 
  3. Classroom support 
  4. Curriculum accommodation 
  5. Teachers collaboration with the different students

The art or science of teaching is called as? 
D.All of the above 
Answer: A 

Friere, “Pedagogy can be defined as a political tool for the enculturation (संस्कृतिग्राह्यता) of students and others”. 

Van Manen, “Pedagogy refers to a process of characteristic what should be made available to students and what should not and that every action of teacher is of significance for the students” 

Mortimore, “Pedagogy can be defined as any conscious activity by one person designed to enhance learning in another” 
The teaching involving tutor and tutee relationship and the tutor may from same class or older student from higher classes under teacher’s supervision? 
A.Peer Buddy 
B.Peer tutoring 
C.Cooperative learning 
D.None of the above 
Answer: B 

What are the procedures of peer tutoring? 
A.Demonstration Procedure 
B.Test-Teach-Test Procedure 
C.Group or paired Teacher Procedure 
D.None of the above 

Answer: D 

Peer Tutoring 

This is an education practice which involves one-to-one instruction. 
In this method, tutor and tutee relationship is build and the tutor may from same class or older student from higher classes under teacher’s supervision. 
In India, this educational method has not got that much attention from govt. as well as educationist 
In inclusive schools when it is needed the same age or cross-age tutoring can be done. 
In any type of peer tutoring, the tutoring of spelling, hand writing, arithmetic and social behaviour can be teach. 
 Peer tutoring should be occur two to three times a week for 20 minutes in last period and the timing can be increased and decreased on the basis of performance from both side. 

Procedures of Peer Tutoring 

Peer tutoring is a systemic approach and should be applied through exact procedures for that peer should be trained before tutoring the tutee. 

t involves teaching them about procedures, practising before starting real peer tutoring and how and when to give feedbacks and teach them how to monitor carefully their own and their partner’s progress. 

Following are the procedures: 
1.Demonstration Procedure 
2.Test-Teach-Test Procedure 
3.Group or paired Teacher Procedure 

The learning in which children learn and work together to find solutions to problems and completes the assignments? 
A.Cooperative Learning 
B.Peer Buddy 
C.Peer tutoring 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

In this type of learning, children learn and work together to find solutions to problems and completes the assignments. 

The need of cooperative learning is increasing day by day. It allow all the students of different ability to work together and find solution. 

May and Doob in 1937 found that people who cooperate and work together to achieve shared goals, were more successful in attaining outcomes, than those who strived independently to complete the same goals. 

This type of learning provides opportunity to students in following way: 

Ask questions 
Give suggestions 
Increase social skills 
Enhance team work 
Good manners 
Learn to take stand 

What are the types of cooperative learning? 
A.Formal Cooperative Learning 
B.Informal Cooperative Learning 
C.Group Based Learning 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Types of Cooperative Learning 

1. Formal Cooperative Learning 
Groups are bring together for at least one class period or may be longer for several weeks working on extended projects or completion of complete unit. They may 5 to 6 members which work in cooperation. 

2. Informal Cooperative Learning 
These are ad-hoc or temporary groups of 2 to 3 members and not well structured. This type of groups are make to learn by breaking a lecture into shorter segments. While this method leads to less time for lecture. 

3. Group Based Learning 
These are long term group up to semester to years and they support, cooperate, motivate to complete the task. The group members make sure everyone is completing their work and hold each other accountable for their contributions. 

The learning through social interactions with other people and it focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context is called as? 
A.Social Learning 
B.Cooperative learning 
C.Peer tutor 
D.Peer buddy 

Answer: A 

Who given the concept of Social Learning Theory (SLT)? 
A.B. F. Skinner 
B.Edward Thorndike 
C.Jean Piaget 
D.Albert Bandura 

Answer: D 

Social learning 

It means learning through social interactions with other people and it focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. 

Suppose a child watches other child getting chocolate on good behaviour and the child wants to imitate the act to get rewarded. Social learning theory is connection between social learning and skinners reinforcement theory. 

Social Learning Theory (SLT) was formulated by Albert Bandura a Canadian Psychologist and most cited living psychologist of all time, he is recognised as originator of social learning theory and theory of self efficacy. 

What are the Modelling process of learning behaviours? 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Modelling Process 

He stated that many behaviours can be learned through modelling. 
For examples: imitating the activities of their own parents like shaving, behaving like them, imitating some activities of them. Aggressiveness, moral characters, etc. can be learned by modelling and observing. 

But not all observed behaviours can be learned effectively, nor learning can necessarily results to behavioural changes. 

What are process of social Learning in the classroom? 
A.Reflective Teaching 
B.Whole Approach teaching 
C.Multisensory teaching 
D.All of the above 

Answer: C 

Procedure of conducting social learning in the classroom 

1. Grouping 
Homogenous or heterogeneous grouping can be performed. 

2. Assigning Group work 
  • Roleplaying 
  • Debating a topic 
  • Create quizzes 
  • Group test taking 
  • Mind Maps 
A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. 

3. Patterns of Group Interaction (followings are the some definitions of groups interactions): 
May Pole: 
When the leader is centre figure and communications occurs through leader members and from the members to leader. 
Round Robin: 
When members take turn talking 
Hot Seat: 
When there is an extended back and forth discussion between the leader and one member and other members watches. 
Free Floating: 
When all members take responsibility for communication, taking into consideration their ability to contribute meaningfully to the particular topic. 

The learning process in which two individual help each other and perform together as a team or single unit is called as? 
A.Buddy System 
B.Peer Tutoring 
C.Cooperative Learning 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

This is a learning process in which two individual (buddies) help each other and perform together as a team or single unit. 

According to Merriam Webster, “buddy system can be defined as an arrangement in which two individuals are paired to ensure that the skill/learning is transferred effectively from one individuals to the other”. This word used first time in 1942. 

It involves linking the students for peer or cross age support for the curricular or co-curricular activities. 

The purpose of buddy system is increase social interaction and team work skills. It also teach how to work in a team and support each other in a progressive manner. 

Benefits for children in Buddy System 

1.Promotes inclusion 
2.Develops empathy 
3.Discourage Bullying 
4.Improved academic outcomes 
5.Reduces stress and anxiety among disabled 
6.Better classroom management 
7.Provides opportunities for peer tutoring 
8.Develops positives cross-age relationship 
9.Contributes to a positive and caring school culture 
10.Develops pro-social values and skills 
11.Develops responsibility 
12.Involves parents 
13.Builds self confidence 

The process or mechanism by which a teacher see themselves where they are standing and how they can improve their teaching is called as? 
A.Reflective Teaching 
B.Whole Approach teaching 
C.Multisensory teaching 
D.All of the above 

Answer: A 

As we all know that teaching is highly skilled and complex activity and a teacher should know to how to support and learning of students in best possible way. 

Reflective teaching is the process of mechanism by which a teacher see themselves where they are standing and how they can improve their teaching. 

This is done by collecting information from their peers, student’s feedback, results, etc. and teacher work on his skills to improve his teaching. So reflective teaching is a mean of professional development for the teacher which happens in class. 

Reflective teaching is valuable tool for self evaluation for the professional growth 

Approaches to Critical Reflections 
Peer observation it includes 
Post observation 

Students feedback 
Feedback forms can be submitted after the class, unit and semester it is best way to get to know about your teaching. 

Teacher’s diary 
After class you can write about your feelings, reactions, what home you have given how children responded in your class and help to manage but this is time consuming. 

Recording lessons 
You can record your teaching lessons, can record audio also, to know how you presented the topic in class and what are the point to be corrected and what are the points to be accepted more in class. 

Procedure of Reflective Teaching 

The teacher can think of himself what and how to do. 

Can discuss the problem with his peers or colleagues and get help and also help them how to improve. 

After getting feedback teacher can read books, search online and read research articles to how to perform well and improve 
Teacher can ask to teachers community about his problem and get help and improve 

The teaching which affects maximum sense is called as? 
A.Reflective Teaching 
B.Whole Approach teaching 
C.Multisensory teaching 
D.All of the above 
Answer: C 

Tactile word is related to? 
A.Body movements 
B.Visual perception 
C.Hearing perception 

Answer: D 

Who given he concept of multisensory teaching? 
A.Edger Dale 
B.Dr. Samuel Orton and Dr. Anna Gillingham 
C.Ivan Pavlov 
D.None of the above 

Answer: B 

  • Multisensory is made up of two words “Multi” more than one and “Sensory” using sensory organs so it involves using more than one sensory organs for learning. 
  • Multisensory teaching involves using multiple sense like vision, hearing, touch to learn. Multisensory teaching make the children to retain the information for longer period. This concept was given by Dr. Samuel Orton and Dr. Anna Gillingham on the basis of their research performed with special education in 1930. 
  • Children learn more by activity like playing, feeling, experiencing, doing, etc. and this type of teaching is very helpful in inclusive classroom. This is also good for regular school students. 
  • Albert Einstein said, “Learning is experiencing, everything else is just information” so we have to use our all the senses while teaching or learning. 

Children take information about their outer world in a varieties of way: 
•Visual (by seeing) 
•Auditory (by hearing) 
•Tactile (by touching) 
•Kinesthetic (through body movements) 

It is proven in research that: 
  • 10% what we hear is retained 
  • 30% what we hear and see is retained 
  • 40% what we hear, see and say is retained 
  • 70% what we hear, see, say and do is retained 

The individuals other than teachers and administrators help to run inclusive school to full potential are called as? 
A.Co-teaching personnel 
B.Special teachers 
C.Resources teachers 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

Inclusive School 
The school in which no discrimination is allowed on the basis of any individual differences and all the students study under one roof. 

Co-teaching personnel such as school psychologist, speech therapist, physiotherapist, and occupational therapist all play an important role in school system to enhance the inclusiveness in regular school environment. 

ICT stands for? 
A.Information and Connective Technologies 
B.Information and Communication Techniques 
C.Information and Communication Technologies 
D.Innovative and Communication Technologies 

Answer: C 

Smart Cane can be used by ____ affected individuals? 
A.Visually affected 
B.Hearing affected 
C.Locomotory affected 
D.None of the above 

Answer: A 

Advanced Digital Speech Audiometer is used by ____ affected individuals? 
A.Visually affected 
B.Hearing affected 
C.Locomotory affected 
D.None of the above 

Answer: B 

What may the barriers to using ICT? 
A.Expensive and require funding 
B.Require skilled person 
C.Require training of teachers which can also need money 
D.All of the above 

Answer: D 

Barriers to using ICT

  • Expensive and require funding 
  • Require skilled person 
  • Require training of teachers which can also need money 
  • Maintenance is required time to time 
  • Teaching the students also take time in starting 
  • The requirement of extra classrooms for devices 
  • The drawback of scanning technologies is that they can’t scan handwritten notes efficiently. 
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