Gender School and Society B.ed MCQs, B.ed mcqs, Gender School and Society MCQs, MCQs of Gender School and Society B.ed, MCQS of b.ed,


Unit 1 


Gender is ______ construct? 
A.Social 
B.Biology 
C.Cultural 
D.All of the above 


Answer A 

In which year use of the word “Gender” or “gender relations” started? 
A.1980s 
B.1970s 
C.1990s 
D.1960s 
 

Answer B 


The use of the word “Gender” or “gender relations” started in the 1970s by Americans and English feminist. 

Gender refers to the socially constructed differences between women and men’s roles, attitudes, values, behaviour, etc. 

According to WHO, “the word gender is used to describe the characteristic, roles and responsibilities of women and men, boys and girls which are socially constructed. Gender is related to how we are perceived and expected to think and act as women and men because of the way society is organised, not because of our biological differences”. 


A hierarchical system in which cultural, political and economic structures are dominated by males? 
A.Pluralist model 
B.Patriarchy 
C.Matriarchy 
D.None of the above 
 

Answer B 


The word “Patriarchy” is derived from? 
A.Latin 
B.Greek 
C.French 
D.English 


Answer A 
 

The word “Patriarchy” is derived from the Latin word which means “Pater” means “Father” and “arch” means “rule”. So the rule of father or my father. 

Valentine Moghadam wrote under the patriarchy, “the senior man has authority over everyone else in the family including younger men and women are subject to distinct forms of control and subordination” 


What is not a characteristic of Patriarchy? 
A.Male dominance 
B.Male centeredness 
C.Oppression of women 
D.Women dominance 
 

Answer D 


Patriarchy or “the rule of father” is a system where the leader is the eldest male or the system which is controlled by males. 


Characteristic Of Patriarchy 

1. Male dominance 
2. Male centeredness 
3. Oppression of women 
4. Male identification 
5. Obsession with control 


What are the strategies against patriarchy? 
A.Individual change 
B.Equality with the present structure 
C.Direct challenge to patriarchy 
D.All of the above 
 

Answer D 
 

Strategies Against Patriarchy 

1.Individual change 
2.Equality with the present structure 
3.Direct challenge to patriarchy 
4.Women and social actions groups 


The discrimination on the basis of gender is termed as? 
A.Women centred society 
B.Matriarchy 
C.Gender discrimination or gender-biased 
D.Patriarchy 


Answer C 


Gender biased or gender discrimination is unequal treatment in opportunities, employment, salary, benefits, promotions, partiality, etc. 
Gender bias can be defined as the inclination to prefer one gender over another gender. 


Followings are the way of gender-biased or which can be encountered at any kind of settings: 

1.Rest rooms 
2.Conversations 
3.Unequal Salary issue 
4.Promotions 
5.Positioned bias 
6.Sexual harassment 
7.Interview questions 
8.Compensations and rewards 
9.Parental status 


What is a stereotype? 
A.Have perfectly defined the roles of male and females 
B.These are a set of rules and we have to follow them 
C.Have some solid beliefs or impressions for something 
D.None of the above 


Answer C 


Stereotype word is derived from? 
A.Latin 
B.Greek 
C.French 
D.English 


Answer B 


Stereotype word is derived from the Greek word “Stereo” and “Typos” which have the meaning “Solid” and “Impression”. So it means a solid impression. 

Mc David and Harari, “the term stereotype is used to describing over generalised and oversimplified conceptual categories in the perception of objects and events” 

Raven and Rubin, “a stereotype is a pre-conceived idea about some groups, an image that is generally oversimplified and rigid and frequently.” 

Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, “Stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people emotionally react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, and then evaluate those characteristics” 

Cardwell, 1996, “A stereotype is “a fixed, over-generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” 

Collins dictionary, “A stereotype is a fixed general image or set of characteristics that a lot of people believe represent a particular type of person or thing.” 


What can be the characteristic of stereotypes? 
A.Stereotype is a mental picture or image 
B.Stereotype contains a widely agreed belief 
C.Stereotypes can be negative or positive 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 


Characteristic of stereotypes 

1.Stereotype is a mental picture or image 
2.Stereotype contains a widely agreed belief 
3.Stereotypes can be negative or positive 
4.Stereotypes involve gross and exaggerated generalisation 


What is the importance of stereotypes? 
A.Helpful in prediction 
B.Useful in educational institutions 
C.Guides human behaviour 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 
 

Importance of stereotypes 

1. Helpful in prediction 
2. Useful in educational institutions 
3. Guides human behaviour 
4. Helpful in making images 
5. Useful in propaganda 


What can be influencing factors of stereotypes? 
A.Background variable 
B.Knowledge based variables 
C.Information mediating variables 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 


Influencing factors of stereotypes 

Internal factors 
1.Background variable 
2.Personality 
3.Knowledge based variables 


External Factors 
1.Information mediating variables 
 

Who coined the term stereotyping? 
A.Walter Lippman 
B.Jahoda 
C.Smith 
D.Secord and Beckman 
 

Answer A 
 

What is called as “principle of fairness”? 
A.Equality 
B.Equity 
C.Gender Discrimination 
D.stereotypes 
 
Answer B 
 
The term equity refers to the principle of fairness. 

Jim Falk and his colleagues, “Equity derives from a concept of social justice. It represents a belief that there are some things which people should have, that there are basic needs that should be fulfilled, that burdens and rewards should not be spread too divergently across the community and that policy should be directed with impartiality, fairness and justice towards these ends”. 

In the case of gender equity, boys and girls and women and men are treated equally without any discrimination. 


The system where society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy (अनुक्रम)? 
A.Equality 
B.Equity 
C.Social Stratification 
D.All of the above 


Answer C 


Social Stratification (सामाजिक स्तरीकरण) is a system in which social categories of people in a hierarchy on the basis of wealth, income, race, education, and power. 


Types of Social Stratification 
1.Caste System: Based on the caste 
2.Class System : this is based on the social factors and achievement of individuals. 

 
What are the types of equality? 
A.Civil equality 
B.Natural equality 
C.Political equality 
D.All of the above 
 

Answer D 
 

Types Of Equality 
1.Civil Equality 
2.Natural Equality 
3.Political Equality 
4.Social Equality 
5.Economic Equality 
6.Equality Of Opportunity And Education 

Gender equality is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making and the state of valuing different behaviours, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. (Wikipedia) 

As per D. D. Raphael, “the right to equality proper is a right of equal satisfaction of basic human needs, including the need to develop and use capacities which are specifically human” 

Barker, “equality means equal rights for all the people and the abolition of all special rights and privileges” 


What are the basic principles of Egalitarianism (समतावाद) as per John Baker? 
A.Economic Equality 
B.Political Equality 
C.Equal Respect 
D.All of the above 

Answer D 


Principles Of Egalitarianism (समतावाद) As Per John Baker 
1.Economic Equality 
2.Political Equality 
3.Equal Respect 
4.Equal of Basic Needs 
5.Sexual, Racial, Ethnic and Religious Equality 


What is the full form of CEDAW in the context of equality? 
A.Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women 
B.Convention on the elective for all the forms of discrimination against women 
C.Convention on the elimination of all forms of differentiation against women 
D.None of the above 


Answer A 


What are the principles of Equity? 
A.Equal of life chances 
B.Equal concern for people needs 
C.Meritocracy (प्रतिभा) 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 

Social Classes 
It also called class refers to a group of people within a society who have the same socioeconomic status. 
1. The Lower Class 
2. The Working Class 
3. The Middle-Class 
a.Lower Middle-Class 
b.Upper Middle Class 
4. Upper Class 


Dimensions (आयाम) of Social Classes 
1.Income and Wealth 
2.Work 
3.Education 
4.Family 


What is the article for the prohibition of untouchability? 
A.Article 17 
B.Article 15 
C.Article 16 
D.Article 18 
 

Answer A 


The Article which guarantees prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth by the State? 
A.Article 17 
B.Article 15 
C.Article 16 
D.Article 18 


Answer B 




Rights To Equality (Article 14 to 18) 
Article 14
The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. Which means Equal Protection of laws. 

Article 15 
This Article guarantees prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth by the State. It also ensures equality in educational opportunities in India. 

Article 15 (4) 
It enabled the government to make special provisions for the advancement of backward classes including the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs). It also ensures the reservation in educational institutes for the SCs and the STs. 

Article 16 (1) 
It guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under State. 

Article 16 (4) 
It ensures that the government can make reservations in favour of any backward class of the citizens. 

Article 17 
Abolition of untouchability and prohibition of its practice. 

Article 18 
Abolitions of prefix or title except in military and academics (for example Major, Captain, Dr., Prof., etc.)  

The cultural traits are shared by a category of people such as language, religion or national origin is termed as? 
A.Ethnicity 
B.Race 
C.Equity 
D.None of the Above 
 

Answer A 
 

Ethnicity (जातीयता)is cultural traits that are shared by a category of people such as language, religion or national origin. 


Oxford Definitions, “the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition” 

Examples are: Asian, American, Latino, American Indian 


Race does not have any fix definitions but can be defined as a group of share distinctive physical characteristics for example colour of hair, facial or skin colour, and these characters are biologically inherited (Only 6% of DNA differences in humans can be attributed to racial differences). 

Sociological definition of race: “A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin colour, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes” 

The term race or racial group is used to divide the people on the basis of their physical characteristic that is inherited. 


The social reformers who work for slavery? 
A.Abolitionist 
B.Prohibitionists 
C.Freedom fighters 
D.Women right activist 


Answer A 


The social reformers who work for the environment? 
A.Abolitionist 
B.Environmentalist 
C.Prohibitionists 
D.Freedom fighters 
 

Answer B 


Raja Ram Mohan Roy started which movement? 
A.Vishwa Hindu Parishad 
B.Arya Samaj 
C.Anand Marg 
D.Atmya Sabha and Brahma Sabha 
 

Answer D 


Ramakrishna Mission started by? 
A.Swami Dayananda Ji 
B.Swami Vivekananda Ji 
C.Shri Madhav Golwalkar Ji 
D.None of These 


Answer B 


Arya Samaj was founded by? 
A.Swami Dayananda Ji 
B.Swami Vivekananda Ji 
C.Shri Madhav Golwalkar Ji 
D.None of These 

Answer A 


Anand Marga was founded by? 
A.Swami Dayananda Ji 
B.Raja Ram Mohan Roy 
C.Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar 
D.Keshab Chand 


Answer C 


Annie Besant has connections with which society? 
A.Anand Marga 
B.Arya Samaj 
C.Ramakrishna Mission 
D.Theosophical Society 
 

Answer D 


Theosophical Society was founded by? 
A.Vivekananda Ji 
B.Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott 
C.Arya Samaj 
D.Ramakrishna Mission 
 

Answer B 


Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar has the role in which social movement? 
A.Widow remarriage 
B.Chipko movement 
C.Tribal movement 
D.Freedom fight 

Answer A 


Which are the theories of socialisation? 
A.Psychoanalytic theory 
B.Cognitive theory 
C.Social learning theory 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 


Who given the Psychoanalytic theory? 
A.Freud Segmund 
B.Jean Piaget 
C.Albert Bandura 
D.None of the above 


Answer A 


Who given the Social Learning Theory? 
A.Freud Segmund 
B.Jean Piaget 
C.Albert Bandura 
D.None of the above 


Answer C 


Who applied the Psychoanalytic theory to gender socialisation? 
A.Freud Segmund 
B.Jean Piaget 
C.Albert Bandura 
D.Nancy Chodorow 


Answer D 


Who compared society with living system or human being? 
A.Herbert Spencer 
B.Freud Segmund 
C.Jean Piaget 
D.Lawrence Kohlber 

Answer A 


So under structural Functionalism treats or compare society with the living system and every part and every social institution is important like part or organs in body. 

Structural Approaches 
1.Consensus Theory (सहमति का सिद्धांत): General widespread agreement among the all the members of social institute 
2.Conflict Theory (संघर्ष का सिद्धांत): Clash between ideas, people and principles 


Who gave the concept or theory of deconstruction? 
A.Herbert Spencer 
B.Freud Segmund 
C.Jacques Derrida 
D.B. F. Skinner 


Answer C 

Deconstructive theory (विघटन )

It is a form of philosophical and literary analysis, from work is done the 1960s by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida, that questions the fundamental conceptual distinctions or “oppositions,” in Western philosophy through a close examination of the language and logic of philosophical and literary texts. (https://www.britannica.com/topic/deconstruction
यह दार्शनिक और साहित्यिक विश्लेषण का एक रूप है, जो कि पश्चिमी दर्शन में भाषा और दार्शनिक और साहित्यिक के तर्क की एक करीबी परीक्षा के माध्यम से मौलिक वैचारिक अंतर या "विरोध" पर सवाल उठाता है 


In popular usage, the term has come to mean a critical dismantling of tradition and traditional modes of thought. 

Derrida also coined the term deconstruction and argues that in Western culture, people tend to think and express their thoughts in terms of binary oppositions (द्विआधारी विरोध) (white/black, masculine/feminine, cause /effect, conscious/unconscious, presence/absence, speech writing). 

Derrida suggests these oppositions are in orders in miniature, containing one term that Western culture views as positive or superior and another considered negative or inferior, even if only slightly so. 

Through deconstruction, Derrida aims to erase the boundary between binary oppositions—and to do so in such a way that the hierarchy implied by the oppositions is thrown into question. Source: https://literariness.org/2016/03/22/deconstruction/

What are the patterns of gender identity? 
A.Prenatal influences 
B.Early gender development 
C.Continuing gender development 
D.All of the Above 


Answer D 

Patterns Of Gender Identity 

1.Prenatal influences 
2.Early gender development 
3.Continuing gender development 
4.Chromosomal Abnormalities 
5.Genital Abnormalities 

Unit II 

Which is a primary social institute? 
A.School 
B.Family 
C.Neighbourhood 
D.None of the above 


Answer B 
 

Family 

It is the primary institution of socialisation of the child and plays a very important role. This word is derived from Roman word families which means servants. 


Concept of Family 

Family is major social institution, social unit created by marriage, blood, or adoption. Family is first way of socialisation for children. 

GP Mundock, anthropologists say family is different in structure but similar in function in various society. 

Nimkoff said that, A family is more on less durable association of husband and wife with or without children of a man on a women alone with children. 

Types of Families 

  1. Nuclear Family
  2. Extended Family
  3. Family of Orientation
  4. family of Procreation
  5. Matrilocal Family
  6. Patrilocal Family

Functions of Family 

  1. Socialisation
  2. Stable Satisfaction of Sexual Needs
  3. Economical Functions
  4. Educational Functions
  5. Religious Functions
  6. Provisions of Home
  7. Procreation fo Rearing of Children


Which is a type of socialisation? 
A.Primary socialisation 
B.Resocialization 
C.Organisational socialisation 
D.All of the above 

Answer D 
 

Types of Socialisation 

  1. Primary socialisation 
  2. Secondary socialisation 
  3. Anticipatory socialisation 
  4. Resocialisation 
  5. Organisation socialisation 
  6. Gender socialisation 
  7. Group socialisation 
  8. Racial socialisation 
  9. Natural socialisation 
  10. Positive socialisation 
  11. Negative socialisation 
  12. Planned socialisation 
 


What are the types of families? 
A.Nuclear family 
B.Patrilocal family 
C.Matrilocal family 
D.All of the Above 
 

Answer D 


Who gave the concept of Parenting Style? 
A.Thorndike 
B.Baumrind 
C.B. F. Skinner 
D.Ivan Pavlov 


Answer B 


Which is not a type of Parenting Style? 
A.Authoritative Parenting 
B.Authoritarian Parenting 
C.Permissive Parenting 
D.Whole approached Parenting 


Answer D 
 

Which is said to be the best Parenting Style? 
A.Authoritarian Parenting 
B.Permissive Parenting 
C.Authoritative Parenting 
D.Uninvolved or Neglectful Parenting 
 

Answer C 


Which is said to be worst or bad Parenting Style? 
A.Authoritarian Parenting 
B.Permissive Parenting 
C.Authoritative Parenting 
D.Uninvolved or Neglectful Permissive 
 

Answer D 


Which is said to be strict Parenting Style? 
A.Authoritarian Parenting 
B.Permissive Parenting 
C.Authoritative Parenting 
D.Uninvolved or Neglectful Parenting 


Answer A 


Researchers found that parenting style have role on child development. 
Parenting style first laid by a Developmental psychologist, Diana Baumrind in 1960 she was working at University of California at Berkeley. 
She noticed that preschoolers exhibited different types of behavior. Baumrind’s theory is that there is a close relationship between children’s behavior and parenting styles, which shapes children lives in future. 

Baumrind initially sated three different parenting styles: 
  1. Authoritative parenting 
  2. Authoritarian parenting 
  3. Permissive parenting 
Maccoby and Martin expanded this parenting style in 1983, they divided permissive into two types 
  1. Permissive or Indulgent 
  2. Neglectful or Uninvolved 

These parenting styles are sometimes called:
Baumrind parenting styles 
Maccoby and Martin parenting styles 


Parenting Styles

1. Authoritative parenting 
(High Demandingness. High Responsiveness.) 

2. Authoritarian parenting 
(High Demandingness. Low Responsiveness.) 

3. Permissive parenting 
(Low Demandingness. High Responsiveness) 

4. Uninvolved or Neglectful parenting 
(Low Demandingness. Low Responsiveness.) 


What are the functions of social institutions? 
A.Preservation of the human race 
B.Satisfaction of basic needs 
C.Social welfare and development 
D.All of the above 


Answer D 


The expectation is derived from ____ word? 
A.Greek 
B.French 
C.English 
D.Latin 


Answer D 


The expectation is derived from the a Latin word “Expectationem” which means “an Awaiting” 


The word community is derived from ____ word? 
A.Greek 
B.French 
C.Latin 
D.English 


Answer C 


Community is derived from the a Latin word “communis” which means “things held in common” 

Community, “all the people who live in a particular place, area, etc. when considered as a group” 
A community is a social unit with shared aims such as norms, religion, values, customs or identity. Communities may share a sense of place situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighbourhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. 


The word value is derived from ____ word? 
A.Greek 
B.French 
C.Latin 
D.English 


Answer C 


Value is derived from the a Latin word “velere” which means “to be strong” or “to be worth” 

Values can be defined as guiding principles that determine individual morality and conduct. What an individual considers to be morally right and desirable in life, especially regarding conduct. 
मूल्यों को मार्गदर्शक सिद्धांतों के रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है जो व्यक्तिगत नैतिकता और आचरण निर्धारित करते हैं। किसी व्यक्ति को जीवन में नैतिक रूप से सही और वांछनीय माना जाता है, खासकर आचरण के बारे में 

Characteristic of Values

  • Values have two aspects. First content and second intensity.
  • Values ​​are intangible (अमूर्त).
  • Values ​​are learned.
  • There is a difference in the importance of value in terms of area.
  • Values ​​are intrinsic to some degree, reflected in a person's personality.

Types of Values

  1. Human Values
  2. Religious Values
  3. Aesthetic Values
  4. Social Values
  5. National or Constitutional Values
  6. Vocational Values

Role of Schooling in developing values

The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world. 

For inculcating values many educationists have suggested different ideas such as:

  1. Value-based curriculum
  2. Designing a special orientation program for teachers
  3. Value-based foundation courses
  4. Publication of literature based on values
  5. The necessity to develop code of conduct for teachers and students
  6. Inculcation of philosophical view towards life among teachers and students.
  7. Further to cultivate values among the new generations we are to design a curriculum from out of our accumulated cultural heritage


National values or constitutional values

1.Liberty (स्वतंत्रता, स्वाधीनता) 
2.Equality (समानता) 
3.Fraternity (बन्धुत्व) 
4.Justice (न्याय) 
5.Secularism (धर्मनिरपेक्षता) 
6.Democracy (जनतंत्र) 
7.Socialism (समाजवाद) 
8.Sovereignty (संप्रभुता) 
9.Fundamental Duties (मौलिक कर्तव्य) 
10.Dignity of individual (व्यक्ति की गरिमा) 
11.Republic (गणतंत्र) 
12.Unity and integrity of the nation (राष्ट्र की एकता और अखंडता) 

Secularism


The secularism word was used firstly in the 19th century by George Jacob Holyoake. He derived it from the Latin word “saeculum” meaning “this present age”, “worldly" or "of a generation. 

Secularism can be defined as the, “a system of doctrines and practices that rejects any form of religious faith and worship”. सिद्धांतों और प्रथाओं की एक प्रणाली जो धार्मिक विश्वास और पूजा के किसी भी रूप को खारिज करती है 

The word secularism was incorporated in the pre amble with the 42nd constitutional amendment in 1976. 

Characteristics of secular education:

  1. Moral outlook
  2. Development of a wider vision
  3. Pluralistic outlook
  4. Democratic values
  5. Cultural development
  6. Synthesis of spiritual and material
  7. Humanitarianism

Method to promote secularism:

  1. Celebration of important events
  2. Youth festivals
  3. Celebrate all the festivals
  4. Arrange seminars and talks about peace and harmony
  5. Teach about the persons who sacrificed life for the country
  6. Teachers should act as a living model of secularism

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